Birth of Muhammad

Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullāh is born in "the year of the Elephant". His father, ‘Abdu’llah ibn ‘Abdu’l-Muttalib, had died before his birth, and his mother, Amina bint Wahb, swiftly puts him into the care of a wet-nurse named Halimah.

Returned to mother

Believing that the young Muhammad is possessed by a demon, Halima returns him to his mother.[1]

Death of mother

After his mother's death, Muhammad is taken in by his grandfather, Abd al-Muttalib. And after his death, his paternal uncle, Abu Talib.

Marriage to Khadijah

Muhammad marries his wealthy twice-divorced distant cousin, Khadijah, who later becomes his first follower. She had already borne two sons and a daughter from her previous marriages, and the union between her and the "insignificant" Muhammad is a controversial one which almost leads to bloodshed.[2] (read more)

The first “revelation”

Muhammad receives what he comes to believe is his first otherworldly visitation, which he later identifies with the angel Jibreel and a revelation from Allah. At first, he believes he may be possessed by a demon, and attempts to commit suicide, only to be stopped by the angel.[3]

Islam preached publicly

For the first time, Muhammad begins to preach Islam publicly in Mecca. His preaching is met with skepticism, and he is accused of plagiarizing the “tales of the ancients”.[4] One of his most sternest of critics is his own uncle, Abu Lahab, who is cursed by name in the Qur'an.[5] The Meccans ask for miracles, but Muhammad gives them none. (read more)

Friction with the Quraysh

Muhammad's "shameful" attacks[6] on the native pagan beliefs causes friction between his followers and the Quraysh. Muhammad allows Muslims to leave Arabia for Abyssinia, while he chooses to stay behind and continue his preaching.

Khadijah's death

The death of his wealthy and only wife Khadijah, is quickly followed by the death of his uncle and protector, Abu Talib. Not long after, he asks Abu Bakr for his six-year-old daughters hand in marriage.

The Satanic verses incident

Muhammad finally acknowledges Allat, Manat, and al-Uzza, the goddesses of the pagan Meccans in a revelation. Upon hearing this, the Meccans are overjoyed. Later, following an alleged visit from the angel Jibreel, Muhammad recants and claims they were the words of the devil. (read more)

Buraq and the Night Journey

Muhammad reports that he had been carried to Jerusalem and then to Paradise on a mythological flying steed named Buraq,[7] and has met the other prophets. Over the sixth heaven, he meets Moses who weeps because there would be more Muslims in heaven than Jews.[8] (read more)

The Hijra

Due to growing animosity between the pagan and Muslim Meccans, Muhammad and his followers flee to Medina, marking the beginning of the Hijra era of the Islamic lunar calender, and also paving the way for Muhammad's metamorphosis from a preacher to a political and military leader.

Marriage consummation with Aisha

Muhammad consummates his marriage to Aisha, his nine-year-old bride. Originally when Muhammad had asked for Aisha's hand in marriage, her father, Abu Bakr, had protested.[9] (read more)

The Nakhla raid

Muhammad orders the 7th Caravan Raid against the pagan Meccans, a raid which would mark the beginning of violence in the name of Islam. Taking place in one of the four holy months in which fighting was forbidden, the leader of the Meccan caravan is killed, and two others are taken captive.

Exile of the Jewish Qaynuqa

Breaking an earlier treaty, Muhammad and the Muslims besiege the Jewish Qaynuqa tribe. Muhammad initially intends to execute all the males,[13] but following an emotional plea from Abdullah bin Ubayy, he confiscates their property and exiles them from Medina.

The Battle of Badr

Following the caravan raids, the Meccans decide to retaliate. Although they're vastly outnumbered, the Muslims defeat the pagan Meccans; killing at least seventy and capturing another seventy for ransom.[10] Among the prisoners of war is Al Nadir, a storyteller and poet who had mocked Muhammad. Ali beheads Al Nadir on Muhammad's orders.[11] Muhammad also orders another twenty-four to be thrown into the well of Badr.[12]

The Battle of Uhud

The second military encounter between the Meccans (led by Abu Sufyan) and the Muslims. Due to the Muslim focus on salvaging booty rather than victory,[14] this time the pagan Meccans defeat the Muslims of Medina, and Muhammad himself is hurt by an attack from Khalid ibin al-Walid.

Siege and exile of the Jewish Nadir

The Muslim siege of the Jewish Nadir tribe lasts for two weeks, after which they surrender. Muhammad confiscates their weapons and exiles them from Medina.

The Battle of the Trench

The Battle of the Trench was not a battle at all, but a fortnight-long siege. Having heard of the strength of the approaching Meccan army, Muhammad's companion, Salman the Persian, advises him there should be trenches dug around the northern front of Medina to prevent hostile Meccans from entering Muslim territory. Coming unprepared for a siege, the Meccan army retreat after two weeks.

The Genocide of the Jewish Qurayza

Following the Battle of the Trench, Muhammad accuses the Jews of Banu Qurayza of betraying him. The women and young children who have not yet reached puberty are taken captive by Muslims to be sold in slave markets for horses and weapons,[15] and all the males who have reached puberty are beheaded on Muhammad's orders.[16] (read more)

Poisoned at Khaybar

Immediately following the conquest of Khaybar, Muhammad and his men are served a meal of poisoned lamb by a Jewish women named Zaynab bint al-Harith, causing him to fall ill. Muhammad questions her,[17] and then has her executed.[18]

The conquest of Khaybar

Muhammad and the Muslims besiege the Khaybar oasis. The combatants killed, and the women and children allotted as booty. The Jewish leader, Kinana, is tortured and beheaded, and his young widow, Safiyah, is taken by Muhammad for himself. (read more)

The Treaty of Hudaybiyya

Muhammad and his men attempt to make a pilgrimage to Mecca. His forces are met outside the city by the pagan Meccans. Muhammad and the pagan Meccans conclude the Treaty of Hudaybiyya, a ten-year truce.

Muhammad rules Arabia

The Muslims prevail in the Battle of Hunayn against the Bedouin tribe of Hawazin and conquer Ta'if. In doing so, they capture huge spoils, consisting of 6,000 women and children and 24,000 camels. Muhammad is now the ruler of Arabia.

The conquest of Mecca

The Muslims conquer Mecca. Muhammad rides on camel-back to the Ka'aba, then starts reciting verses from the Qur'an, while his men remove and destroy everything they consider idolatrous from the Ka'aba. This is the first of many non-Muslim worship places to be forcibly converted into a mosque. (read more)

The Tabuk raid

The expedition to Tabuk marked the first real act of aggression by the Muslims against Christians. Two/thirds of the Christian world would be conquered before the much belated and weak response of the crusades. By the time Muhammad arrives at Tabuk, the Byzantine troops have already withdrawn. However, the local Christian leaders are forced to pay Jizyah and submit to Islamic rule.

All Arabians submit to Islam

Muhammad sends (the now converted) Khalid ibin al-Walid and other warriors to the remaining non-Muslim Arabian tribes, forcing them to accept Islam.[19]

The Farewell pilgrimage

After completion of the pilgrimage, Muhammad delivers his famous sermon which leads to the commencement of the conquests against the Christians and Zoroastrians. (read more)

Death of Muhammad

Muhammad's last days are spent with Aisha in her house, where he continues to issue orders and curse the Christians and Jews.[20][21] Slumped against her bosom,[22] he finally dies on the 8th of July. Ali (Muhammad's son-in-law and cousin) reports that Muhammad's penis was erect after his death.[23] (read more)